The last decades witnessed a wide debate about the relationship of religion to politics, and the extent of their influence on each other. If this debate was renewed after the fall of the Ottoman Caliphate in the twenties of the last century, the proximity of the era to a system called the “Islamic Caliphate” restricted the dialogue to the image of this Islamic system Is it a caliphate or another image? Indeed, the fall of the Ottoman caliphate prompted many Muslim thinkers to reformulate their vision of the Islamic political system in an attempt to remedy what led to the fall of the caliphate, and from that the effects of intellectual trends emerged as groups and movements have emerged that work to restore the Islamic political system to the forefront Once Other, but with the tyranny of nationalism since the thirties of the twentieth century and the control of the national state which carried various slogans echoed between nationalism and socialism and Islamic, and is still raging ideological conflict between the concepts of religious and civil state.

Key words: Ottoman, Sultan, Regime, Conflict, Islamic