Pluralism and the crisis of building the Mauritanian state

Main Article Content

ولد باهي بون

Abstract

Summary:


This study aims to present a vision of pluralism and the crisis of nation-building in Mauritania, by looking at the roots and consequences of the crisis. This study falls in the context of the well-known regional studies field in some literature, and it assumes that the reality of pluralism has affected the Mauritanian state in two problems, the problem of political identity: is it an Arab or African country? And the problem of social identity: is the state of Negroes or the Arabs? Thus, you see that pluralism is responsible for the crisis of state building, given the specificity of this pluralism. It also contributes to the continued domination of military rulings, as it weakens society and kills its living forces by neutralizing its goals from the public sphere to what is personal and private. Indeed, the reality has proven that even if it defends domestic issues but it is backed by external powers and this increases the risk of deviation On the right thing. The study concludes that the tribal society is also less dangerous than the ethnic community, due to the danger that the tribal society may cause from the danger that it will doubtless have on the future of the state.


Key words: pluralism, ethnic pluralism, tribe, tribalism, crisis, country

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
[1]
بونو. ب., “Pluralism and the crisis of building the Mauritanian state”, African Journal of Political Sciences, vol. 6, no. 1, Dec. 2018.
Section
political sciences

References

Ibrahim Ahmed Nasr El-Din: The problem of state building in Africa. In: Communication and Intervention, Scientific Conference Papers (Khartoum, Forum of African Universities, International University of Africa, in Africa 2006).
Ahmed Bahaa El-Din: The Legitimacy of Authority in the Arab World, (Cairo, Dar Al-Shorouk, 2nd edition, 1985)
Ibn Khaldun Al-Abr, Diwan Al-Mobtada and Al-Khubar in the days of Arabs, Persians and Berbers, and those of their contemporaries with the greatest authority: Introduction to Ibn Khaldun.
Jean-Marie Duncan: Politics, translation, Dr. Muhammad Arab Sa`sila, (Beirut University Foundation for Studies, Publishing and Distribution, 1st edition 1992)
Hamdi Abdel-Rahman: The Military and Governance in Africa: A Study in the Nature of Civil-Military Relations, (Cairo, Center for African Future Studies (African Studies Series), 1st Edition 1996).
The Hebron Grammar: A Muslim Africa with a Lost Identity (Dar Al-Arab Islamic, 1993)
Mohamed El-Amine Ould Sidi Bab: Aspects of political participation in Mauritania (Center for Arab Unity Studies, Beirut, 1st edition, 2005)
Muhammad Saeed bin Ahmadu: Mauritania between Arab affiliation and African orientation (Center for Arab Unity Studies, Beirut, 1st edition, 2003)
Abdul Salam Ibrahim Baghdadi: National Unity and the Problem of Minorities in Africa, (Beirut, Center for Arab Unity Studies, first edition 1993).
Ghassan Salama: Society and State in the Arab Mashreq, (Center for Arab Unity Studies, Beirut, 2nd edition, 1999).
Magazines:
Amartya Sun: Identity and Violence (World of Knowledge, No. 352,2008)
Ahmed Ould El-Hussein: Aspects of national consciousness among the intellectuals of the country of Chinguetti in the two centuries (18-19), The Arab Future, No. 72, 1985
Claude Dobart: The Crisis of Identities, (Additions to the Arab Journal of Sociology, No. 7, 2009)
Mahmoud Ould Mohamed: The recent legislative and municipal elections in Mauritania, an analytical reading of the most important political and social implications of their results (Arab Future, No. 335,2007)
Nicola Ziada: The Arab World, Mauritania, (Arab Affairs, No. 22 in 1982).
Salem Lubeid: Identity: Islam / Arabism, Tunisian (The Arab Future, No. 361, 2009).
French :
Zekeria ould ahmed salem: la démocratisation au contret (1991-2002), in: les trajectiorres d’un etat-fortiére, espaces, évolution politique et transformations sociales en mauritanie dakar: codesria, 2004.

Dr. Ibrahim Ahmed Nasr El-Din: The problem of state building in Africa. In: Communication and Intervention, Scientific Conference Papers (Khartoum, Forum of African Universities, World University of Africa, in Africa 2006), p. 257 [1]
Dr.. Abdul Salam Ibrahim Baghdadi: National Unity and the Minority Problem in Africa, (Beirut, Center for Arab Unity Studies, first edition 1993), p. 207. [2]
Ibid., P. 208. [3].
Ibn Khaldun al-Ubar, Diwan al-Mubtada` and al-Khubar in the days of the Arabs, Persians and Berbers, and those of their contemporaries with the greatest authority: Introduction to Ibn Khaldun, p. 164. [4]
Dr.. Hamdi Abdel-Rahman: Pluralism and the Crisis of State Building in Islamic Africa, (Center for African Future Studies, Cairo, 1st edition, 1996), p. 25. [5]
Dr.. Abdul Salam Ibrahim Al-Baghdadi: pp. 191-92 [6]
Ibid: pp. 194-95 [7].
A segment of society was subjected to slavery in a period of history, and they are Arabs whose skin tends to black, noting that some of them are not like their white skin, and that some of them, in turn, practiced slavery against the people of his slice. [8]
Dr.. Mohamed El-Amine Ould Sidi Bab: Aspects of political participation in Mauritania, (Center for Arab Unity Studies, Beirut, 1st edition, 2005), p. 141. [9]
Salem Lubeid: Identity: Islam / Arabism, Tunisian, (The Arab Future, No. 361, 2009), p. 68 [10]
Claude Dupar: The Crisis of Identities, (Additions, Arab Journal of Sociology, No. 7, 2009), p. 44 [11]
Amartya Sun: Identity and Violence, (World of Knowledge, No. 352, Year 2008), p. 33 [12]
[13] Dr. Muhammad Saeed bin Ahmadu: Mauritania between Arab affiliation and African orientation, a study on the problem of political identity 1960 - 1993 (Center for and Studies on Arab Unity, Beirut, 1st edition, 2003), pp. 65-66
[14] Dr. Nicola Ziadeh: The Arab World, Mauritania, (Arab Affairs, No. 22 in 1982), pp. 170 ff
Dr. Muhammad Saeed bin Ahmadu: p. 76 and beyond. [15]
[16] Zekeria ould ahmed salem: la démocratisation au contret (1991-2002), in: les trajectiorres d’un etat-fortiére, espaces, évolution politique et transformations sociales en mauritanie (dakar: codesria, 2004) 305-331
[17] Muhammad Saeed bin Ahmadu: 110-112
[18] Ahmed Ould Al-Hussein: Aspects of national consciousness among the intellectuals of the country of Chinguetti in the two centuries (18-19), The Arab Future, No. 72, 1985, p. 123.
The Hebron Grammar: A Muslim Africa with a Lost Identity, (Dar Al-Arab Al-Islami, 1993), p. 20 [19]
- Muhammad Saeed bin Ahmadu: pp. 99-100 [20]
[21] According to Claude Dobart, identity does not become a matter of concern and subject of analysis except when it does not return intuitive, when the prevailing meaning no longer is predetermined and the actors are no longer able to agree on the significance of the situation and the roles they are supposed to assume, see: Claude Dopard: in the margin, p. 44 .
[22] Dictionaries distinguish five meanings of the French word "crisis" (...): 1- Sudden change in the context of a disease, ((sudden demonstration of a fatal condition), (for example: a heart attack), 2 A rapid and violent occurrence of a nervous or emotional state (For example: a seizure), 3- sudden outbreaks of aggression or enthusiasm (for example: working in shifts), 4- a decisive or thorny period in existence (for example: adolescence crisis), 5- a difficult stage in which a social group passes Or a break in the balance between the great economic powers (for example: an economic crisis): Claude Dupar: p. 42
[23] Muhammad Abd al-Baqi al-Harmasi: The Social and Cultural Introduction to the Study of the State, in: Dr. Ghassan Salama {and others}, The Nation, State, and Integration in the Arab World, p. 79
Same page [24]
[25] Dr. Ibrahim Ahmed Nasr El-Din: pp. 261-262
[26] Elia Hariq: The emergence of the state system in the Arab world, in: Dr. Ghassan Salama {and others}, The Nation, the State, and Integration in the Arab World: p. 27
- Muhammad Saeed bin Ahmadu: Pg 182 [27]
Ibid., P. 125 [28].
The same reference: pp. 120-127 [29]
The same reference: pp. 129-136 [30]
[31] Muhammad al-Mukhtar Ould al-Saad and Muhammad Abd al-Hayy: The Experience of Democratic Transition in Mauritania, pp. 26 and beyond.
Dr. Muhammad Saeed bin Ahmadu: page 144 [32]
Dr. Muhammad Saeed bin Muhammad: pp. 145-148 [33]
[34] - Mahmoud Ould Mohamed: The recent legislative and municipal elections in Mauritania, an analytical reading of the most important political and social implications of their results (Arab Future, No. 335,2007), p. 89
Mohamed El-Amine Ould Sidi Bab: p. 146. [35]
The meaning intended here for the word: legitimacy must be distinguished from the meaning given to it by jurists of constitutional law when they compare legitimacy with legitimacy. [36]
Dr. Hamdi Abdel-Rahman: The Military and Governance in Africa: A Study of the Nature of Civil-Military Relations, (Cairo, Center for Future Studies) [37]
The African (African Studies Series) I 1 1996), p. 126.
Ahmed Bahaa El-Din: The Legitimacy of Power in the Arab World, (Cairo, Dar Al-Shorouk, 2nd Edition), 1985, p. 12. [38]
[39] Jean-Marie Duncan: Politics, translation, Dr. Muhammad Arab Saasila, (Beirut University Foundation for Studies, Publishing and Distribution, 1st edition, 1992), p. 117.
Dr. Hamdi Abdel Rahman: p. 126. [40]
[41] - Weak political awareness due to traditional, ethnic and economic obstacles

Copyright License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.  

  Article Metrics Details