This study aims to analyses the sociology of political changes in Senegal and the foundations of the neo-patrimonial authority to be found in the cultural determinants and the clientelistic relationships. It seems that despite the modern institutions construction that conduct the State and produce citizenship, the political system still functioned according to a spoils system and through the clientelistic relationships and private use of state resources.  All these facts hinder democratic transitions, development. Here, it would appear the role of the “political” to convey the “social,” and the strategic considerations found within the “social” to determine games of the “political.” An ambiguous relationship that perpetuates the crisis in public political issues.                                        .

Key words: Neo-Patrimonialism, Despotism, Democracy, Political Clientelism.