Language is one of the most important elements of a society’s cultural identity. Through language, people think, express themselves and communicate with the outside world. Moreover, language is a self-affirmation and an expression of belonging and differentiation from the other. That is why language has been always controversial and has fostered continuous debates.

The study drives its significance from the centrality of cultural security for states and societies as well. After the end of the cold war, the concept of security has changed and shifted from focusing on military security to societal and human security against the new challenges, particularly cultural and social challenges. Linguistic conflict in Algeria represents an aspect of such issue. This study examines the backgrounds of linguistic conflict in Algeria and its implications for societal cultural security, especially the conflict between Arabic and French on the one hand, and very recently between Arabic and Amazigh on the other hand. The study aims to provide researchers and stakeholders with an understanding of the nature of the conflict, its backgrounds and its implications for cultural security in order to achieve better management.

It concludes that there are unspoken backgrounds to the conflict, related mainly to the competition among the conflict’s planners over power positions, political and economic influence, cultural and civilizational hegemony