2. Sebie Verhayn, Can the European Union Really Disintegrate, Journal of Trends in Events, Future Center for Research and Advanced Studies, Abu Dhabi, No. 16, March-April 2016
3. Ashraf Mohamed Kishk, NATO's Future Between the European Crisis and Trump's Politics, International Politics, No. 208, April 2017
4. Anas Al-Qassas, Turkish-European Relations in the Shadow of the Right, International Politics, No. 208, April 2017
5. Muhammad Mutawa, Exit and Survival Challenges: The Complexities of the Relationship Between Britain and the European Union, International Politics, No. 203, January 2016.
6. Basem Rashid, after the Paris attacks: European policies towards refugees, international politics, No. 203, January 2016
7. Maya Gridini: “What are the implications of Britain’s exit from the European Union?” Site:
[www.alarabiya.net], June 26, 2016 CE
8. Irish borders ... a historical dilemma threatening the unity and peace of the United Kingdom - Gulf Online website
https://alkhaleejonline.net/ Irish politics / borders-historical-dilemma-threatening unity-and-peace-United Kingdom
9. Severe repercussions awaiting Britain after its exit from the European Union, Gulf Online, https://alkhaleejonline.net/
10. RT Online, Britain's Exit from the European Union Threatens to Secede Scotland from it - https://arabic.rt.com/press/867739
11. Europe, "Sturgeon": Voting for independence for Scotland will be more important in Johnson's reign - https://euroabia.com
12. - See for example: - The Arabs website, Brexit raises fears of renewed violence in Northern Ireland - https://alarab.app/
13. Al-Sharq Al-Awsat Newspaper, https://aawsat.com/home/article/1883716/ The United Kingdom - after - "Brexit" - the challenge - the preservation - of unity - The United Kingdom after "Brexit" ... the challenge of preserving unity
ثانيا: المراجع الأجنبية:
1. Dąbrowski, M. (2016). The future of the European Union: towards a functional federalism. Acta Oeconomica, 66(1). doi:10.1556/032.2016.66.S1.2.
2. David Cameron, “EU speech at Bloomberg,” Bloomberg, 23/01/2013, accessed on 30/6/2016, at: http://bit.ly/LBzZU4
3. Stern, S. (2018) ‘Theresa May’s handling of Brexit is a classic case of bad leadership’, The Conversation, 12 December, available at https://theconversation.com/theresa-mays-handling-of-brexit-is-a-classic-case-of-bad-leadership-108646.
4. Clausing, K.A. and Dorobantu, C.L. (2005), “Re-entering Europe: Does European Union candidacy boost foreign direct investment?”, The Economics of Transition. Vol.13, No1.
5. “EU referendum: The result in maps and charts,” BBC, 24/06/2016, accessed on 1/7/2019, at: http://bbc.in/28TRi57
6. Nat Cen Social Research (2019) ‘Have the politicians delivered? Voters’ judgement on the Brexit process’, London: NatCen Social Research, available at https://whatukthinks.org/eu/analysis/have-the-politicians-delivered-voters-judgement-on-the-brexit-process/.
7. Dhingra, S. Ottaviano, G. Sampson, T. and Van Reenen, J. (2016), “The Impact of Brexit on foreign investment in the UK”, Centre for Economic Performance, Paper Brexit 03, The London School of Economics and Political Science.
8. The House of Commons Library research, Brexit: impact across policy areas, Briefing Paper, Number 07213, 26 August 2016
9. Ortiz, G. and Latorre, M.C. (2018), “A computable general equilibrium analysis of Brexit: Barriers to trade and immigration restrictions”, Mimeo.
10. Josh Hoorwitz”The UK (Leave) vote could Trigger a Wave of Exits throughout the Eu , Quartz (24June 2016)
11. General Election 2017: where uk,s parties stand on Brexit “BBC News 925April2017” (http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-39665835)
12. Armstrong, K. (2018) ‘Regulatory alignment and divergence after Brexit’, Journal of European Public Policy. doi: 10.1080/13501763.2018.1467956
13. Ericson, A. (2018) ‘Is Theresa May a bad negotiator, or is Brexit just an impossible proposition? Answer: yes’, Washington Post, 14 December, https://wapo.st/2FxzVTB.
14. Gamble, A. (2019) ‘The realignment of British politics in the wake of Brexit’, The Political Quarterly 90 (2)
15. Thousands march in Cardiff calling for Welsh independence - The Guardian-from : https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/may/11/thousands-march-in-cardiff-calling-for-welsh-independence
16. It’s time for Wales to start talking about independence- The Guardian-from : https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/mar/14/wales-independence-leave-uk-scotland
17. Henderson, A., Jeffrey, C., Wincott, D. and Wyn Jones, R. (2017) ‘How Brexit was made in England’, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations 19 (4): 631–46.
18. ennings, W. and Lodge, M. (2019) ‘Brexit, the Tides and Canute: the fracturing politics of the British State’, Journal of European Public Policy 26(5): 772–789.
19. Working Paper: Border controls on cross border trade in goods, Point 24, NI Department for the Economy, May 2017 – Retrieved via Martina Anderson MEP
20. Scottish Leader Calls for Independence Referendum if Britain Leaves the E.U.- The New York Times- https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/24/world/europe/scotland-independence-referendum-brexit.html
- Abstract viewed - 834 times
- full pdf downloaded - 223 times
Ali Mousa Al Dadda
Applied Science University bahrain
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Article Metrics Details
Follow us on
The implications of Brexit On Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland
Vol 8 No 2 (2019): v8i2
Submitted: Oct 26, 2019
Published: Nov 14, 2019
The total results of the referendum on UK membership in the European Union, which was the result of a vote of 52% of the British exit from the Union, showed that the European project, which is understood as a process of political integration within the European Union, has become unstable and insecure. The economic crisis and new crises such as immigration and the common market, as well as the thought of some countries to secede from the United Kingdom. There are also new discussions about the European project and its future stability, as this British decision affects the European Union significantly and the conditions of the Union's work and future, and the Brexit will damage the cohesion, trust and international reputation of the European Union. There is no doubt that the current situation is the most serious crisis in the history of European integration, where the vote for the "Brexit" sent shocks to all over the world, especially the European continent, shook financial markets and revive global discussions on the viability of the European Union in the long term. The paper will analyze the effects on Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales.