Ahluwalia, M. K., & Pellettiere, L. (2010). Sikh Men Post-9/11: Misidentification, Discrimination, and Coping. Asian American Journal of Psychology. 1, 303-314
Ajrouch, K. J., & Jamal, A. (2007). Assimilating to a White Identity: The Case of Arab Americans. International Migration Review. 41, 860- 879
Asvat, Y., & Malcarne, V. L. (2008). Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms in Muslim University Students: Personal- Family Acculturation Match. International Journal of Psychology. 43, 114-124.
Awad, G. H. (2010). The Impact of Acculturation and Religious Identification on Perceived Discrimination for Arab/Middle Eastern Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 16, 59-67.
Bierman, A. (2006). Does Religion Buffer the Effects of Discrimination on Mental Health? Differing Effects by Race. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 45, 551-565.
Cole, David. (2003). Patriot Act's Big Brother. Nation. 17 Mars 2003. Academic Online.
Derous, E., Ryan, A. M., & H. H. Nguyen. (2009). Hiring Discrimination against Arab Minorities: Interactions between Prejudice and Job Characteristics. Human Performance. 22, 297-320.
Dwairy, M., Achoui, M., Abouserie, R. (2006). Adolescent- Family Connectedness among Arabs. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 37, 248-261.
Erickson & Al-Timimi, (2001). Providing Mental Health Services to Arab Americans: Recommendations and Considerations. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 7, 308-327.
Gana, Nouri. (2008). Introduction: Race, Islam, and the Task of Muslims and Arab American Writings. Theories and Methodologies. 123(5): 1573-1580.
Harb, C. (2010). Describing the Lebanese Youth: A National and Psycho-social Survey Youth in the Arab World. Beirut:
Hassan, Salah. (2002). Arabs, Race and the Post September 11 National Security State. Middle East Report. 224, 16-21.
Ikizter, A. S., & Szymanski, D. M. (2018). Discrimination, Religious and Cultural Factors, and Middle Eastern/ Arab Americans' Psychological Distress. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 74, 1219-1233.
Levin, B., & Gisham, K. (2016). Special Status Reports: Hate Crimes in the United States: 20 State Compilation of Official Data. San Bernardino, CA: Center for the Study of Hate and Extremism at the Californian State University.
Moradi, B. & Hassan, N. T. (2004). Arab American Persons' Reported Experiences of Discrimination and Mental Health: The Mediating Role of Personal Control. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 51, 418-428.
Padela, A. I., & Heisler, M. (2010). The Association of Perceived Abuse and Discrimination after September 11, 2001, with Psychological Distress, Level of Happiness, and Health Status among Arab Americans. American Journal of Public Health. 100. 284-291.
Pargament, K. I., Smith, B. W., Koenig, H. G., & Perez, L. (1998). Patterns of Positive and Negative Religious Coping with Major Life Stressors. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 18, 710-724.
Rosseau, C., Hassan, G., Moreau, N., & Thomas, B. D. (2011). Perceived Discrimination and its Association with Psychological Distress among Newly Arrived Immigrants before and after September 11, 2011. American Journal of Public Health. 101, 909-915.
Salaita, Steven. (2006). Anti Arab Racism in the USA: Where it Comes from and What it Means in Politics today. London: Pluto Press.
Saloom, R. (2005). I Know You Are, But What Am I? Arab American Experiences through the Critical Race Theory Lens. Hamilton Journal of Public Law and Policy. 27: 55-76.
Samhan, H. H. (1999). Not Quite white: Race Classification and the Arab-American Experience. Arabs in America: Building a New Future. Ed. Michael W. Suleiman. Philadelphia: Temple UP. 209-26.
Schmitt, M. T., Branscombe, N. R., Postmes, T., & Gracia, A. (2014). The Consequences of Perceived Discrimination for Psychological Well-being: A Meta-analytic Review. Psychological Bulletin. 140, 921-948.
Semaan, J. (2007). Arab American Unveil: The Building Bloks in the Construction of Our Identity (Doctoral Dissertation, Bowling Green State University, Ohio, USA. Retrieved from http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/
Smith, T. B., & Silva, L. (2011). Ethnic Identity and Personal Well being of People of Color: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 58, 42-60.
Tabbah, R. (2011). Self-Concept in Arab American Adolescents: Implications of Social Support and Experiences in the Schools (Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio State University, Ohio, USA). Retrieved from http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/
Telzer, E. H., & Fuligni, A. G. (2009). Daily Family Assistance and the Psychological Well being of Adolescents from Latin America, Asian, and European Backgrounds. Developmental Psychology. 45, 1177-1189.
Tummala-Nara, P., Alegria, M., & Chen, C. N. (2012). Perceived Discrimination, Acculturative Stress, and Depression among South Asians: Mixed Findings. Asian American Journal of Psychology. 3, 3-16.
Wingfield, M. (2006). Arab Americans: into the Multicultural Mainstream. Equity and Excellence in Education. 39(3):253-266.
- Abstract viewed - 294 times
- html downloaded - 0 times
university larbi ben mehidi oum el bouaghi algeria
Dynamics to Buffer Discrimination and Its Psychological Effects among Arab Americans:
Religiousness, Family Affinity, and Ethnic Affiliation
Vol 8 No 1 (2019): volume 8 issue 1
Submitted: Jan 23, 2019
Published: Feb 9, 2019
The research purports to analyze discrimination, its effects, and the way it impacted the Arab Americans. Through a brief historical survey of the Arabs' immigration to America, the research seeks to emphasize that ethnic and religious discrimination against Arab Americans is as old as the early arrival of the first Arab wave. Unquestionably, the ethnic and religious discrimination against Arab Americans results in stress, malaise, and other psychological discomforts.
This research spots the light on certain elements that had been deeply examined and, consequently, considered by ethnic studies researches as negative aspects that aggravate the existing stereotypes of the Arab Americans' status. Contrary to that, this research investigates the ways in which family affinity, religiousness, and racial affiliation can be turned reversibly into positive factors that help Arab Americans to mitigate discrimination and, consequently, its serious psychological effects.