2- Parliamentary Thought Magazine, a magazine specialized in parliamentary issues and documents. Article entitled, Political Philosophy, Ongoing Political Reforms, National Assembly, Algeria, April 2012, p. 11 and beyond.
3- Estimating the situation: the legislative elections in Algeria, the Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies - June 2012, Doha: p. 06.
4- The Algerian Daily News, Saturday 12 May 2012, p .: 07.
5- Estimating the position, previous reference, p. 07
6- The Algerian Daily News, November 7, 2012, p. 04.
7- Estimating the situation, previous reference, p. 08.
8- The Algerian daily newspaper, Al-Nahar, May 13, 2012, p. 03.
9- Fathi Boulares, political reforms in Algeria, between survival strategies and the logic of change, the Arab Journal of Political Science, Center for Arab Unity Studies, Beirut, Lebanon, No. 35, Summer 2012, p. 16.
10- Ibid., P. 16.
11- Ibid., P. 17
12- Ibid., P. 19
13- Ibid, p. 20
14-Elwatan, 09 Juin, 2011
15- Al-Khobar Daily, No. 06/12/2012, p. 02.
16- See the distinguished study of sociologist, Nasser Jabi, entitled. Why the Algerian spring is late, Shehab publications, 2012, Algeria. Pages 32 and later (by acting).
17-Algeria currently faces major dilemmas such as bureaucracy, corruption and unemployment for import. More
Cherif Ouazani, les Sept péchés capitaux, Jeune Afrique, n: 0 2705; du 11 au 17 nouembre 2012, p: 80-82
18- Khair Allah, Khair Allah, the Moroccan exception and the Arab Spring?
http /www.eloph.com / web / Newspapers / 2012/08/08 752724 -html.
(19) (20) (21) Abdel Latif Berrouh, is the constitutional review of reform in Morocco sufficient?
http / hespress .com / opinions / 29873- html
22- El Hassan Aashi, Morocco on the road to political reform
http / arabik .carnegieendowent. org / 3/2011/2011
-23- Hassan Zerwani, Political Reforms in Morocco, unpublished lecture provided within the works of the Arab Maghreb Forum in the Shadow of the Arab Revolutions, Tunisia on November 21-22, 2012, National Archives headquarters, Tunis.
24- Hassan Tariq, Abd al-Ali Hamid al-Din, 2011 constitution between authoritarianism and intermittent readings, Public Dialogue Series Publications, Rabat 2011, pp. 110-113 (Disposed).
25- This was mentioned in the dialogue that took place with Mr. Mohamed Ould Mahmoud, President of the Union of Progressive Forces (UFP), with the Journal of the Nation
El watan; Lundi19 novembre2012; p11
26- Mauritanian protests 2011 hHp / en.wikipedia .org / wiki /
27- Khadija El-Tayeb, Mauritania tries to catch up with the Arab Spring,
http / www.arayaemostenir .com / pr / 4272-2012-01-19-10-55-11html
28- Hajj Ould Ibrahim, The Arab Spring: The Mauritanian Exception, Report Series, Al-Jazirah Center for Studies, July 30, July 2012, p. 2 and beyond.
29- Ibid., P. 03
30- Ibid., Pp. 4-5
32- Muhammad al-Mukhtar was born Muhammad Fall, why did it not bloom after the leaves of the Arab Spring in Mauritania,
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Algeria, Morocco and Mauritania in the Shadow of the Arab Spring: Reforms or a Difficult Democratic?
Vol 2 No 1 (2013): v2i1
Submitted: Jan 9, 2019
Published: Dec 26, 2013
Samuel Huntington mentioned in his book The Political System of Changing Societies, a comprehensive summary of the dilemma of political change in traditional systems in describing the Belgian Revolution in 1787 against the modernized reforms that Joseph II said in: “The issue is clear, the difference between social change and constitutional freedom may come reform At the expense of the totalitarian government overriding the unified administration and historical institutions in the country, or freedom is preserved at the expense of the continuity of old regimes of privileges, property, private rights, class structure, and church participation in state affairs.
Key words: political change, Mauritania, Algeria, Morocco, revolution.